Online Readings in Psychology and Culture
Center for Cross-Cultural Research
Western Washington University
Bellingham, Washington U.S.A.

Complete Table of Contents
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Brief Table of Contents | Introduction | Home

Unit 1:  Introduction and Overview
Chapter Author Title
1 Editors Nature and Scope of Online Readings in Psychology and Culture
1 Editors User Agreement
Unit 2: Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Issues in Psychology and Culture
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 2 Introduction
1 Harry C. Triandis

Odysseus Wandered for 10, I Wondered for 50 Years

2 Gustav Jahoda

Reflections of a "Pre-Nominal" Cross-Cultural Psychologist

3 Douglass R. Price-Williams

Cross-, Intra-, Inter-, and Just Plain Cultural

4 Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero

Precursors of Cross-Cultural Psychology and the Context of Culture

5 David Matsumoto

Culture, Psychology, and Education

6 Fons J. R. van de Vijver

Types of Cross-Cultural Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology

7 Peter B. Smith

Levels of Analysis in Cross-Cultural Psychology

8 Anu Realo and Jüri Allik

The Nature and Scope of Intra-cultural Variation on Psychological Dimensions

9 Stefan Strohschneider

Automobiles, Individualism-Collectivism, and Psychic Systems: An Essay on the Functional Perspective in Cross-Cultural Psychology

10 Robin Goodwin

Conducting Cross-cultural Psychology Research in Changing Cultures: Some Ethical and Logistical Considerations

11 Diane Sunar

The Psychology of Morality

12 Jaan Valsiner Culture and its Transfer: Ways of Creating General Knowledge Through the Study of Cultural Particulars
13 Diane A. van Hemert Cross-cultural Meta-analyses
14 Geert Hofstede Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hoftede Model in Context
Unit 3: Perspectives from Various Ethnic and Cultural Groups
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 3 Introduction
1 James M. Jones

Toward a Cultural Psychology of African Americans

2 Beatrice Medicine

Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories

3 Amado M. Padilla

Hispanic Psychology: A 25-Year Retrospective Look

4 Stanley Sue

Asian American Mental Health: What We Know and What We Don't Know

5 John W. Hinkley, Herbert W. Marsh, and Dennis M. McInerney

Social Identity and Navajo High School Students: Is a Strong Social Identity Important in the School Context?

6 Susanna A. Hayes

Emmett Oliver's Story: Psych-social Development of an Extraordinary Native American

7 Pawel Boski Interactions, Research and History Embedded in Polish Culture: Humanism and Uncertainty Non-Avoidance
Unit 4: Basic Psychological Processes and Culture
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 4 Introduction
1 Stefan Strohschneider

Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making

2 C. Dominik Güss

Planning in Brazil, India, and Germany: A Cross-Cultural Study, a Cultural Study, and a Model

3 C. Dominik Güss Decision Making in Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures
4 Jeanette Altarriba

Bilingualism: Language, Memory, and Applied Issues

5 Jeanette Altaribba, Dana M. Basnight, & Tina M. Canary Emotion Representation and Perception Across Cultures
Unit 5: Conceptualizing and Measuring Intelligence, Abilities, and Creativity Across Cultures
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 5 Introduction
1 Robert J. Sternberg

Cultural Explorations of Human Intelligence Around the World

2 Elias Mpofu Indigenization of the Psychology of Human Intelligence in Sub-Saharan Africa
3 Denise de Souza Fleith

Creativity in the Brazilian Culture

4 Cheryl D. Foxcroft

Ethical Issues Related to Psychological Testing in Africa: What I Have Learned (So Far)

Unit 6: Measuring Personality and Values Across Cultures
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 6 Introduction
1 Robert R. McCrae

Cross-Cultural Research on the Five-Factor Model of Personality

2 A. Timothy Church and Marcia S. Katigkak

Studying Personality Traits Across Cultures: Philippine Examples

3 Michael D. Hills Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientations Theory 
4 David P. Schmitt Are Sexual Promiscuity and Relationship Infidelity Linked to Different Personality Traits Across Cultures? Findings from the International Sexuality Description Project
5 Fanny M. Cheung and Shu Fai Cheung Measuring Personality and Values Across Cultures: Imported versus Indigenous Measures
Unit 7: Studying Health and Well-being Across Cultures
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 7 Introduction

Eunkook M. Suh and Shigehiro Oishi

Subjective Well-being Across Cultures

2 Frances E. Aboud

Cultural Perspectives on the Interactions Between Nutrition, Health, and Psychological Functioning

Unit 8: Acculturation and Adapting to Other Cultures
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 8 Introduction
1 Nan M. Sussman

Sojourners to Another Country: The Psychological Roller-coaster of Cultural Transitions

2 Ute Schöenpflug Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Coping
3 Ma. Teresa Tuason

Culture of Poverty: Lessons from Two Case Studies of Poverty in the Philippines-One Became Rich, the Other One Stayed Poor

4 P. Wesley Schultz

Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors Across Cultures

5 Yuko Nippoda

Japanese Students' Experience of Adaptation and Acculturation of the United Kingdom

6 David Lackland Sam and Brit Oppedal Acculturation as a Developmental Pathway
7 Stephen Bochner Culture Shock Due to Contact with Unfamiliar Cultures
8 Floyd Rudmin Catalogue of Acculturation Constructs: Descriptions of 126 Taxonomies: 1918-2003
Unit 9: Culture and Mental Illness
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 9 Introduction
1 David Lackland Sam and Virginia Moreira The Mutual Embeddedness of Culture and Mental Illness
2 Junko Tanaka-Matsumi and Robert Chang

What Questions Arise when Studying Cultural Universals in Depression? Lessons from Abnormal Psychology Textbooks


Andrew G. Ryder, Jian Yang, and Steven H. Heine

Somatization vs. Psychologization of Emotional Distress: A Paradigmatic Example for Cultural Psychopathology

4 Anthony J. Marsella Cultural Aspects of Depressive Experience and Disorders
Unit 10: Counseling Across Cultures
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 10 Introduction
1 Clemmont E. Vontress

Culture and Counseling

2 Paul B. Pedersen The Making of a Culturally Competent Counselor
3 Yuko Nippoda

Japanese Culture and Therapeutic Relationship

4 Arthur Blue, Wes Darou, Carlos Ruano Though Silence We Speak: Approaches to Counselling and Psychotherapy with Canadian First Nation Clients
Unit 11: Culture and Human Development: Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 11 Introduction
1 Heidi Keller

Culture and Development: Developmental Pathways to Individualism and Interrelatedness

2 Chuansheng Chen and Susan Farruggia

Culture and Adolescent Development

3 Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler

Cultural Variations in Parental Support of Children's Play

4 Ronald R. Rohner and Abdul Khaleque

Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Life-Span Development: A Universalist Perspective

5 Rachel Seginer Adolescent Future Orientation: An Integrated Cultural and Ecological Perspective
Unit 12: Culture and Human Development: Adulthood and Old Age
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 12 Introduction
1 Gisela Trommsdorff

An Eco-Cultural and Interpersonal Relations Approach to Development Over the Life Span

2 Frank Eyetsemitan

Life Span Developmental Psychology: Midlife and Later Years in Western and Non-Western Societies

Unit 13: Cultural Perspectives on Families
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 13 Introduction
1 Cigdem Kagitcibasi

A Model of Family Change in Cultural Context

2 Maria Auxiliadora Dessen and Cláudio V. Torres Family and Socialization Factors in Brazil: An Overview
3 James Georgas Family: Variations and Changes Across Cultures
Unit 14: Cultural Perspectives on Death, Dying, and Bereavement
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 14 Introduction
1 Frank Eyetsemitan

Cultural Interpretation of Dying and Death in a Non-Western Society: The Case of Nigeria

2 James T. Gire

How Death Imitates Life: Cultural Influences on Conceptions of Death and Dying

Unit 15: Social Psychology and Culture
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 15 Introduction
1 Harry C. Triandis

Subjective Culture

2 John Adamopoulos

The Perception of Interpersonal Behavior Across Cultures

3 Saera R. Khan Stereotyping from the Perspective of Perceivers and Targets
4 Tara West and Sheri R. Levy

Background Belief Systems and Prejudice

5 Marshall H. Segall

Why is There Still Racism if There is No Such Thing as "Race"?

6 Hans-Joachim Kornadt

Social Motives and Their Development in Cultural Context


Susanna A. Hayes and Molly J. Foote

Culturally Responsive Approaches to School Violence Prevention

8 Zeynep Aycan

Leadership and Teamwork in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities

9 Robert V. Levine Measuring Helping Behavior Across Cultures
10 James J. Liu A Cultural Perspective on Intergroup Relations and Social Identity
Unit 16: Perspectives on Becoming More Culturally Competent
Chapter Author Title
- Editors Unit 16 Introduction
1 Forrest B. Tyler

Transcultural Ethnic Validity Model and Intracultural Competence

2 Richard Brislin

Encouraging Depth Rather than Surface Processing about Cultural Differences Through Critical Incidents and Role Plays

3 Jianglong Wang

Knowing the True Face of a Mountain:  Understanding Communication and Cultural Competence

4 Martin J. Gannon Cultural metaphors: Their use in management practice and as a method for understanding cultures

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