Type 1 diabetes and Hypokenisis
Type 1 Diabetes
People with type 1 diabetes are reliant upon exogenous insulin injections to maintain normal blood sugar levels and cell function. 41 Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5-10% of all cases of diabetes and has its highest rate of occurrence between 11-13 years of age. 3
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys its own insulin secreting beta cells of the pancreas. 8 The virus that causes the autoimmune response has not been identified.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
- Frequent urination
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss
- Abnormal increase of appetite
- Absence of menstruation
Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes
There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes.
Exercise and Type 1 diabetes
Exercise helps maintain better blood glucose control, which leads to decreased microvascular complications in the type 1 diabetic as was demonstrated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. 55 If blood sugars are kept within healthy ranges, people with type 1 diabetes may participate, enjoy, and receive all the benefits of regular physical exercise. When exercising with type 1 diabetes special attention must be given to the prevention of hypoglycemic reactions or low blood sugars since people with type 1 diabetes are reliant upon exogenous insulin injections to metabolize glucose. When beginning exercise there is no way to decrease the amount of insulin in the blood, it is a hormonal regulatory mechanism in people without diabetes (this protective mechanism even occurs in type 2 diabetics). Exercise increases insulin sensitivity which can lead to overinsulization, causing low blood sugars. Also with the type 1 diabetic there is concern of elevated blood sugars before and during exercise. If blood glucose is above 300 mg/dl and not enough insulin is present in the blood, exercise can cause blood sugars to rise even higher and put them at increased risk at diabetic ketoacidosis.