Importance of Puget Sound Lowland Streams
Due to their abundance and location, Puget lowland streams comprise a significant amount of native fish habitat and are subjected to pressures unique to their location in the managed landscape. We seek presenters to discuss what role PLSs have in the recovery of the Salish Sea ecosystem, and what is being done to protect and restore that role.
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“This session will share the integrated approach the Seattle Aquarium uses to convene scientific expertise and educational outreach around ocean acidification. Panelists will address collaboration on oceanographic monitoring, building communication skills among scientists, the Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health XPRIZE pH sensor competition and best practices for OA interpretation.”
This session showcases a range of recent and pending efforts to address ocean acidification through coordinated public education and engagement campaigns, local mitigation and remediation projects, and policy actions. Presenters will share how they are responding to potential economic, social and ecological impacts of ocean acidification.
As climate change has recently been declared a priority area for the Washington State Department of Health, we are proposing to convene a session that merges the topic of the shifting climate with recent patterns among marine ecosystems in the Salish Sea, as related to public health. The proposed session will gather ocean and climate scientists, public health managers and tribal biologists from the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia to discuss recent trends and potential future threats to consumer safety eating shellfish from the Salish Sea. These specialists will bring a variety of perspectives relating to monitoring past trends and making future predictions about the impacts on shellfish from biotoxin and pathogen threats. This session will facilitate conversation around the topic of adapting to and mitigating the changes that will affect shellfish harvest in the Salish Sea, as a result of climate change. In this session, we will discuss adaptive management in the face of shifting trends among phytoplankton communities and ocean conditions. We will address recent trends in levels and spatial extents of toxicity causing Harmful Algal Blooms and marine pathogens such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We will also discuss the seasonality and duration of closures for recreational and commercial shellfish harvest in the Salish Sea. Presentations will delve into new biotoxin threats, such as DSP, and other marine biotoxins and pathogens that may become prevalent in this area in the future. Key topics include: - Current marine biotoxin and pathogen monitoring in the Salish Sea - Emerging threats to public health (DSP, new marine pathogen species) - Effectively engaging the industry to help track changes and respond to emerging threats - Recent history and trends in closure rates, duration and levels of toxicity causing Harmful Algal Blooms and of Vibrio-related commercial and recreational shellfish harvest closures
This session will showcase broadly applicable case studies that exemplify how climate science can be integrated into local decision making. The goals of this session are to build a community of adaptation and resilience practitioners, and to foster greater collaboration and partnerships between scientists and decision makers in order to create more resilient communities. A variety of different climate change products, guidebooks, visualization and decision support tools are widely available today, yet most local development and management decisions still do not incorporate climate data into planning decisions. Climate change is a cross-cutting threat and provides a link for critical decisions of planning, allocating resources, sustaining development and management as well as preserving natural habitats and building resilient communities. The session will start with an overview of an upcoming publication from Washington Sea Grant, titled “Planning for Change: Climate Adaptation Survey Results” that identifies barriers and opportunities for climate adaptation in Washington State. Case studies presented in this session will provide examples of climate science integration successes and challenges across a variety of sectors, including both how they have successfully integrated climate change data and tools into their specific needs and local decisions, and how they have addressed potential barriers to the integration of climate science in their planning processes. Collated, these examples will provide a better understanding of the needs of local decision makers, and help inform usability of climate tools. Fostering dialogue between and sharing perspectives among a wide range of community stakeholders and climate scientists, and identifying opportunities for partnerships, are the principal motivations for this session.
Assessing, Planning and Adapting to Climate Change Related Impacts in the Skagit River Watershed, From Glacial Headwaters to the Salish Sea
The Skagit River watershed, in northwestern Washington State and extending into British Columbia, contributes more than 30% of all freshwater entering Puget Sound. The 394 glaciers in the Skagit’s eastern headwaters provide 8 - 12 % of the Skagit’s summer flow. Eleven reservoirs supply energy, and drinking and irrigation water to Bellingham, Skagit County cities and Seattle. The Skagit Delta is the largest in Puget Sound and is a tremendous economic and ecological asset, providing the largest agricultural center in Western Washington and maintaining regionally significant salmon, waterfowl, and other wildlife populations in the Sound. The Skagit River is home to all five salmon species, including the most abundant run of the iconic Chinook in the Sound. Current and predicted climate due to anthropogenic warming will likely affect natural and human systems in the watershed. Already, the average annual temperature at Sedro Woolley has increased by approximately 1°C (from 1895 to 2010) and glaciers in the North Cascades have lost 50% of glacial mass since the start of the 20th century. The snowline in the basin has risen 600 feet since 1958, increasing the potential for destructive fall and winter flooding and decreasing potential water storage in the snowpack. Mean sea level at Friday Harbor has increased by 10 centimeters from 1934 to 2006. Additionally, dikes and levees along the Skagit River and the shoreline prevent sediment deposition on the deltaic plain that could potentially offset sea level rise. In this session we solicit submission from those who conduct research on climate change impacts in the Skagit watershed. We encourage submissions from those whose work links two or more systems or processes within the watershed (i.e. linking river flood and sediment models to deltaic process models) and from those whose work spans the ecosystem/human interface. See attachment for list of speakers and topics.
Energy and the Salish Sea Submitted by Stephanie Buffum, Friends of the San Juans Fred Felleman of Friends of the Earth The petroleum products moving through the NW are changing in product type, transportation mode and quantity. This panel will look at those changes and determine how it will impact oil spill risks in the NW, discuss characteristics, response strategies and safety for oil and non-traditional products such as: Dilbit, Bakkan, and coal transiting through the Salish Sea; and provide a summary of the Vessel Traffic Risk Assessment associated with the transport of fossil fuel in the Salish Sea. A goal of the session will be to demonstrate the types of material currently moving through our waters and the state of preparedness for the Salish Sea. Specific presenters will include: 1. Introduction and Overview: Stephanie Buffum, Director of Friends of the San Juans 2. Vessel Traffic Risk Assessment summary of results. Fred Felleman, Friends of the Earth and VTRA ngo representative. 3. Gary Shigenaka - NOAA– Fate and effects of types of oil transiting through the NW Straits, how it behaves in a spill and how it affects the environment 4. Levels of Spill Preparedness in Canada and the US – Stafford Reid, EnviroEmerg Consulting
Session type: general/regular Co-organizers: Neil Banas (University of Washington) and Ben Cope (EPA) Participants: Neil Banas and Parker MacCready -- pH and circulation in the Salish Sea Tarang Khangaonkar -- streamflow and air temperature impacts on Salish Sea circulation and dissolved oxygen Mindy Roberts -- future ocean conditions and population impacts on Salish Sea dissolved oxygen (will solicit abstracts from all Canadian and US efforts and will encourage ecosystem modeling to supplement circulation and water quality) Session Description: How might Salish Sea marine waters change under future climate projections and future population growth? How will the Pacific Ocean affect the Salish Sea? This session will explore our current understanding of these factors. While models are tools used to assess future scenarios, this session will focus on the results and uncertainty rather than the details of the modeling.
This special session is on the theme of energy and the Salish Sea. The oil and coal export projects currently proposed for the region carry a range of impacts to the Salish Sea marine environment and our global climate. This session will consider the environmental, economic, and cultural risks of new fossil fuel export projects proposed for the Salish Sea. Presenters will be invited to reflect on the political, economic, health and social issues that are raised when individual projects are cumulatively reviewed at the Salish Sea regional level. Presenters will discuss lessons that can be learned from and for environmental assessment regimes on both sides of the border, as well as for transboundary efforts that are underway to raise awareness of these combined risks among decision-makers and members of the public.
The goal of this session is to highlight the multitude of ways climate change can be incorporated into community planning processes. This session will provide current information about specific efforts in Washington state assisting communities in planning for coastal hazards, climate change, and sea level rise in order to increase overall resilience. We will provide a brief introduction to the current state of knowledge with regard to climate and coastal hazards impacts on our shorelines with a focus on how the scientific research has informed management and outreach efforts during the past three years. From science to policy to implementation and working on all of Washington’s coasts, and through various partnerships, Washington Sea Grant helps coastal communities increase resilience.
In this session we highlight new research, from observations, modeling, and experiments, that is pertinent to ocean acidification in the Salish Sea. Presenters will represent a broad range of scientific disciplines, spanning physical, chemical, biological, and ecological. Given the broad range of topics, we seek to compare regional systems and responses, and gain collective insight on its status.
The focus of this session is to review several emerging technical tools developed to identify areas vulnerable to SLR and how these tools link with adaptation planning to increase local resilience in the Salish Sea. Many aspects of sea level rise will occur consistently throughout the region, such as: increased storminess and the geomorphic response of different shoretypes. Local (relative) sea level rise projections, regional geology, wave exposure, and other environmental processes affected by climate change are likely to vary considerably. Therefore management plans and guidance will likely be most effective if they also vary to deal with these regional differences and environmental gradients. Several different mapping approaches will be presented that integrate local SLR projections with environmental (storm surge and wave impacts, bluff erosion rates) and planning considerations (construction and planning elevations) to foster proactive community growth and development. A presentation on the BC Sea Level Rise Primer will demonstrate how these tools bear influence on the development of adaptation planning at the local level. This session provides the opportunity to better understand the range and scale of sea level rise implications and how emerging tools currently help to inform increased resilience in adaptation, land use planning, and restoration. 1.Ian Miller, WA Sea Grant, Generating local sea level rise projections to support community adaptation 2.Thomas White, BC Ministry of the Environment. BC’s Sea Level Rise Adaptation Primer 3.Eric Grossman, USGS, Modeling wave impacts with sea-level rise for the Coastal Resilience Tool and tribal shellfish harvest planning in the Salish Sea 4.Andrea MacLennan, Coastal Geologic Services. Sea level rise vulnerability in San Juan County.. 5.Jesal Shah, P.E. and P.Eng, BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations. Sea Level Rise and Coastal Floodplain Mapping Guidelines.
This special session features recent efforts to understand how anthropogenic pollutants affect the nearshore marine food webs of the Salish Sea. Presenters will share their findings on the fate and transport of contaminants in nearshore habitats and what impact they have on the biota living there.
Sediment is a principal driver in shaping habitats, transporting contaminants, and causing significant flood disturbance. Improving our quantitative understanding of sediment dynamics and ecosystem interactions would greatly advance the efficacy of resilient ecosystem restoration across the Salish Sea. Fluvial sediment impacts across North America already cause billions of dollars in damage annually and projected climate and sea-level rise in the Pacific Northwest are expected to complicate efforts to protect communities from river and coastal flooding while maintain important ecosystem functions and municipal infrastructure including water supply systems and agricultural drainage. The complex sediment-transport regimes require knowledge of the functioning sediment system in addition to comprehensive models and decision-support tools to navigate the challenges that communities face when balancing infrastructure needs against protecting natural processes that promote ecosystem productivity. This session will summarize existing quantitative knowledge of sediment dynamics and transport affecting ecosystem restoration targets and the climate-change impact pathways projected to influence sediment dynamics in the coming decades. The session will also explore emerging efforts to model impacts of changing system conditions, evaluate restoration solutions in the context of changing sediment dynamics, and evaluate decision-support tools to help resource managers engage communities for solutions.
The goal of this session is to promote a better understanding of environmental conditions enhancing the proliferation of HAB species and marine pathogens and their impact on the seafood resources and human health in the Salish Sea.
Strategies by local jurisdictions for improving management of stormwater from green infrastructure approaches by local cities and counties to Metro Vancouver region’s Draft Adaptive Management Framework.
Water Pollution Identification and Correction (PIC) programs have been developed and are being used by Puget Sound counties to successfully improve water quality by identifying and correcting water pollution from fecal sources such as onsite sewage systems, agricultural animal and livestock, pets, and urban wildlife.
PIC programs provide collaboration between agencies and partners including Conservation Districts, local and state government agencies and Tribes to coordinate education and outreach, monitoring, investigation, source identification, technical assistance and other incentives, voluntary correction, and enforcement when necessary.
The Washington State Departments of Health and Ecology together with the Kitsap Public Health District recently developed a PIC program guidance document with input from various Puget Sound counties to assist with establishing and/or enhancing PIC programs. The guidance document also contains nine key elements for jurisdictions seeking funding from Ecology.
The Hood Canal Coordinating Council is developing a Regional PIC program with Hood Canal Action Area jurisdictions: Jefferson, Kitsap and Mason Counties and the Port Gamble S’Klallam and Skokomish Tribes. The project includes a summary of PIC activities in the Hood Canal Action Area, a review of local onsite sewage regulations, OSS GIS mapping, a proposed monitoring plan and work plan, an animal waste PIC strategy, a stormwater PIC strategy, and sustainable funding strategy. This session will include presentations on the PIC guidance document, the Hood Canal Regional PIC program, and other successful PIC methods from Puget Sound counties including Jefferson, Skagit, and Thurston. Information will be presented about new and innovative tools under consideration for enhancing PIC programs, such as emerging contaminants.
Washington Fish Consumption Rate: One Number, Hundreds of Human Health and Environmental Management Decisions, Millions of Consumers
The objective of this session is to unpack and explore the complexity and issues underlying the current fish consumption rate debate in Washington State. Presentations will examine the science, history, applications in environmental management, human health policies and regulatory standards, and potential effects of fish consumption rates to people and the environment.
In this session we will explore the current regional research related to the occurrence and ecotoxicity of CECs in the Salish Sea. We also aim to explore the regional approaches to the regulation and management of this vast group of compounds.
The Lower Duwamish Waterway in Seattle, WA is a federal Superfund site contaminated by PCBs and other contaminants. US EPA is expected to release a final cleanup plan in 2014 for the site. Tracking and reducing sources of PCBs to the Lower Duwamish Waterway will be an important element of the river cleanup. The challenges of reducing PCBs in urban environment will be explored. This session will present information about sources of PCBs from both upriver and within the drainage basin to the Duwamish River.
Bioretention is a non-proprietary stormwater management tool that has the potential to reduce hydrologic and water quality impacts caused by urbanization of the Salish Sea Watershed. This session will focus on the benefits and drawbacks of bioretention as a stormwater management tool, what research is indicating about the hydrologic and runoff treatment benefits of bioretention, and an overview/update on research currently underway in the Salish Sea Watershed.
Coastal eutrophication, water quality, and delivery of pollutants to coastal waters have an impact on benthic and near-bottom habitats of the Salish Sea. Environmental changes related to these factors include shifts in nutrient ratios, decreases in dissolved oxygen concentrations, increased delivery of organic matter, and the structure of benthic macroinvertebrate, protozoan and microbial assemblages. This session invites presentations that reveal benthic and near-bottom habitats while also exploring underlying mechanisms and linkages to water column parameters. Priority will be given to those presentations that highlight patterns that have emerged over extended temporal scales, system-wide spatial scales, or through established monitoring programs.
How do we connect our knowledge of stream ecology to guide public policy and management? Many federal, state, local and tribal governments in the US and Canada collect benthic macroinvertebrate data to monitor stream health. The Puget Lowland Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (BIBI) is one of the primary tools used to measure stream health and has also been identified as one of the PSP Vital Sign indicators. A key goal of this session will be to illustrate the integration of science and policy surrounding the use of biological data for decision making. Select presentations in this session will include comments from a policy maker to reflect on the usefulness of the science after the presentation.
This Special Session will focus on observed outcomes of infection to Zostera marina (eelgrass) by the marine pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae. Invited papers will be followed by a round-table discussion
This session highlights recent work to assess trends in kelp and factors influencing its abundance and distribution, including complex interactions with grazers, predators, and environmental change.
Concerns over floating kelp bed losses are increasing in the Salish Sea. This session focuses on the techniques and findings of ongoing assessment and monitoring efforts led by local citizens and non-governmental organizations, and their distinct approaches to leveraging local partnerships and available resources.
This session will focus on findings from studies on the Elwha River and its estuary and coast that describe the status and trends of the ecosystems and habitats during this unprecedented dam removal project.
This session will highlight recent research evaluating beach processes and ecological response to marine shoreline armoring throughout Puget Sound.
Spit and Barrier Beach Restoration: The Importance of Geomorphic Context on Salmon Habitat Restoration
This session will present a broad examination of restoration of spits and barrier beaches from recent experience, including challenges and opportunities, lessons learned, and possible future directions.
Reimagining Shorelines: Building Relationships and Designing Successful Shoreline Enhancement Projects Using Shared Values - on Private, Public and Tribal Shores
This session will focus on the unique set of landowner issues and objectives using examples from recent, successful shoreline enhancement projects, how these objectives are reflected in final designs, and speak to the importance of garnering interest and building relationships of trust between project proponents, project designers, and landowners, whether they are public, private, or tribal.
The intent of this session is to explore spatial and temporal patterns of pelagic ecosystem attributes of the Salish Sea in the context of past and future human activity. Submissions are encouraged from a wide range of pelagic research and monitoring efforts in the US and Canada; confirmed session content includes landscape scale results from: abiotic and lower to middle trophic level attributes of surface waters, long-term biogeochemical monitoring, and fish surveys using trawl and acoustic methods in the water column.
A Comprehensive Transboundary Effort to Evaluate the Marine Survival of Salmon and Steelhead in the Salish Sea: the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project
This session will provide the greater Salish Sea community with a Salish Sea Marine Survival Project status report. The presentations will describe the proposed, ongoing, and recently completed research and how the work is being coordinated within and between the U.S. and Canada.
Pacific herring, surf smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other schooling fishes in the Salish Sea are important prey for fishes, seabirds, marine mammals, and a diversity of other wildlife. This general assemblage of forage species, coined 'forage fish', has not yet commanded public attention on par with iconic Northwest fauna, yet contributes disproportionately to food webs through an upward transfer of biomass and energy.
During the past five years, a host of regional and international transboundary meetings, workshops and analyses focused on forage fish have resulted in novel collaborations, new research, and conservation initiatives. There is agreement that comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment of forage fish is needed to improve the scientific basis for management actions for both forage fish and the species that depend on them, and to support ongoing studies and preservation efforts around the Salish Sea.
This session is intended to inform and catalyze discussion among conference participants who are engaged in forage fish research, protection, and management. Participants will share relevant survey and assessment methods in nearshore and marine waters, and application to novel conservation and recovery strategies. New information on the effects of disease, habitat loss and degradation, ocean acidification, and other stressors to forage fish populations around the region will also be addressed.
Evaluation, Conservation and Restoration of Species Associated with High-relief, Rocky Habitat in the Salish Sea
Marine fish communities associated with hard substrate are diverse, ecologically important, and culturally significant to people living near the Salish Sea. This session will highlight recent assessment, conservation, and restorations actions, tools, and strategies for these communities.
The first of two related and sequential sessions, this is a session with presentations on distribution, abundance, and mechanisms of change including human pressures. The second session is a panel discussion with invited experts that can speak to broader topics like oceanographic conditions, prey base, and food web dynamics.
The second of two related and sequential sessions, this is a panel discussion with invited experts that can speak to broader topics like oceanographic conditions, prey base, and food web dynamics. The first session features presentations on distribution, abundance, and mechanisms of change including human pressures.
Developing and Using Nearshore Functional Assessment and Ecosystem Service Valuation Models with Stakeholder Input and Application of Model Results in an Alternative Mitigation Program and Long-term Shoreline Restoration Program
The range of habitats in the nearshore– marine riparian, intertidal wetland, intertidal non-wetland, and subtidal habitat contribute to the health of Puget Sound. This session will explore the development of nearshore rapid assessment models with stakeholder groups and their application for long-term shoreline management and restoration.
Investing in Watershed Services: From Valuation to Funding Mechanisms for Maintaining Natural Infrastructure
Ecosystem service benefits, such as water provisioning and filtration, account only for a watershed’s bare land and timber value in formal accounting rules. This session will explore ways to use ecosystem service valuation to create new funding mechanisms for long-term investment in the natural capital resources across watersheds.
Lessons learned and best practices in local citizen science projects.
Rethinking Our Waterways: Collaboration and Working Effectively with Landowners, Project Partners and Decision Makers
An interactive panel discussion to share lessons learned, best practices and on-the-ground experiences from collaborative watershed initiatives that have effectively engaged local landowners and decision makers to produce tangible improvements for riparian and aquatic habitat and function.
Scientists expect that their science will be useful for resource management, but in practice, much science goes unnoticed by those who make important ecosystem policy and restoration decisions. This session will pair the scientist with the decision maker to show how scientific data and analysis can be used to inform meaningful and effective management.
Panel: Successful campaigns and engagement strategies – learning from local, regional and national experiences.
The processes used to develop social and ecological indicators for large scale watershed and nearshore management.
This session presents integrated approaches to Salish Sea Foods, including collaborative education on traditional foods and cultural keystone species, partnerships with tribal fishermen to enhance catch value, and engagements with recreational and commercial harvesters in food security and environmental stewardship initiatives.
An exploration of the roles shellfish and shellfish aquaculture play in the Salish Sea from the perspectives of scientists, policy experts, aquaculture business members, and ecosystem restoration practitioners.
Assessment and integration of social and cultural dimensions of ecosystem services into natural resource management and policy
Examples of applied social strategies to ecosystem problems, emphasizing problem definition, the social science that informed solutions, and the strategies that put those solutions into action.
Strategies for improving information flow among scientists, stakeholders and policymakers using new technologies such as data visualization, crowd sourcing and interactive conceptual models; how technology helps (or hinders) the effectiveness of communication among scientists; and the potential impacts of “open access” publishing
Invited and contributed case studies of collaboration between natural and social scientists to enhance integrated coastal management in the Salish Sea.
Initiatives in BC and Washington using a systems approach to promote progressive planning in collaborative partnerships among diverse constituencies, letting leaders and communities create policies and practices for healthy and environmentally beneficial communities, with strong economies.
Integrated marine planning initiatives, including best practices in science, social science and policy with a focus on partnerships between federal, provincial, First Nation or local governments.
Regional or landscape-scale assessments integrated for local land use planning or regulatory decisions, including emerging tools.
Presentations will focus on multi-disciplinary monitoring to inform performance metrics for large freshwater floodplain restoration sites. The unique challenges facing large site monitoring both in the science and in the field will be addressed.
Progress in Washington State and British Columbia to gain voluntary support for soft shore solutions, or Living Shorelines, throughout the Salish Sea, including Green Shores for Homes, and other projects.
In a critical area such as the San Juans, this panel will explore how citizen science plays a key role in addressing the threat of major oil spills including the establishment of baselines for individual beaches and region, systematic data gathering and response.
What does true “coordinated response” look like? In the event of a spill, agency personnel from all levels, and both countries, will need to work with scientists, NGOs, elected officials, citizen scientists, and the general public, both before, and after a spill.
Multiple-benefit approach for managing floodplains in the Salish Sea basin, including policy and technical issues and local practitioners.
Recreational Vessel Pollution Prevention in a Trans-boundary Environment: British Columbia and Washington State
This session will be a panel discussion/presentation focused on recreational boating activities in the Salish Sea -- framed within the idea of pollution and pollution prevention as a trans-boundary issue between the U.S. and British Columbia. Every year, boaters from Washington and B.C. cross the border bringing oil products and raw sewage with them to places where no other potential sources of overboard or even upland discharges exist. Reducing risk of future overboard discharges from recreational boating activities can come from effective education and outreach through existing programs such the Clean Vessel Act of 1992, The Pacific Oil Spill Prevention Education Team and the Clean Marina certification programs of both the U.S. and British Columbia. The intent of this session is to highlight pollution prevention as a trans-boundary issue, discuss potential future education and outreach activities and explore options that promise to help eliminate these pollution threats.
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Pressure and Risk Assessment Tools and Programs in Support of Short and Long Term Management Decisions for Ecological Restoration and Human Welfare in the Salish Sea
Structured and shared decision-making and the role of policy, science, legal frameworks, economics and culture to support Salish Sea protection on short- and long-term horizons
Shorelines of the Salish Sea- New Strategies and Tools to Support Ecosystem-based Management and Restoration in Beach Systems.
This session focuses on emerging tools, data and strategies available for improved restoration and management of beach systems in the Salish Sea. A series of individual talks are proposed around the following related topics: 1) Strategies for nearshore ecosystem restoration and protection in Puget Sound, 2) Trends and Impacts of Shoreline Armoring; 3) Feeder Bluff mapping, 4) Marine Shoreline design guidance and 5) related efforts in Canada.
Integral to the restoration of ecological functions to the Salish Sea are the remediation of contaminated sediment sites throughout the Sea as well as the Cascade, Olympic Peninsula, and Vancouver Island watersheds. This special session will explore the remedial efforts underway, with an emphasis on innovative methods already in place or under construction that hold promise to reduce or sequester contaminants in ways that immediately reduce exposure risks to benthic invertebrates, fish, marine mammals and birds, as well as risk reduction for humans from fish consumption. Remedial projects to be presented will include dredging projects, results of in-place caps, addition of active amendments, and both enhanced and monitored natural recovery.
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