Downloads from the Institute of Environmental Toxicology
SETAC North America Boston November 14-17 2011
- Ecological Risk Assessment i the Context of Global Climate Change.M. Brooks, P. Chapman, J. Durda, W. Landis, C. Menzie, R. Stahl, J. Stauber.
- Integrated Multiple Stressor Regional Risk Assessment for the South River and Upper Shenandoah River, VA. W. G. Landis, M.G. Cains, A. Markiewicz, J. Stinson, H. Summers.
- The Use of a Bayesian Network to Model the Risk of Mercury Contamination to the Fish and other Vertebraes in the South River, VA. H. Summers, Kim K. Ayre, J. Stinson, W.G.Lands and M. Cains.
- WP090 The Use of Bayesian Networks to Integrate Population Modeling, Community Interactions and Ecosystem Services. Wayne G. Landis, Kim K. Ayre, Heather Summers.
- RP101 Well Past Time to Stop Using NOELS and LOELs. Wayne G. Landis and Peter M. Chapman
- RP269 Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures in Stormwater: Malation and Benzene Toxicity to Daphnia magna. M. Cains and W. G. Landis.
Seminar Series, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellngham WA May 2010.
Seminar Department of Environmental Science, School of Coast and Environment, Lousiana State University Baton Rouge LA April 2010.
South River Science Team Presentation 2009 Williamsburg
- South River Ecological Risk Assessment. Wayne G. Landis, Kim Kolb Ayre, April Mrkiewicz, Jonah Stinson, Shawna McCullough.
Download from SRA 2009 Baltimore
- Platform-A Bayesian network based risk assessment for whirling disease on populations of Colorado River cutthroat trout in watersheds of the southwestern United States. Kim Kolb Ayre, Colleen Caldwell, Jonah Stinson and Wayne Landis
Downloads from SETAC 2009 New Orleans
- 153-Regional and Landscape Risk Assessment as a Science-Policy Integrative Tool for Managing Human Dominated Systems. Wayne G. Landis, April J. Markiewicz.
- 529-Regional Scale Integration of Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. Wayne G. Landis
- Poster 236. Risk based Bayesian networks as a tool for determining environmental condictions for disaster restoration. Wayne G. Landis, Kim Kolb Ayre.
Puget Sound Partnership Science Panel Presentation March 10 2009
- Presentation-The use of regional scale risk analysis to integrate science, risk, and policy and decision making. Wayne G. Landis
Puget Sound Georgia Basin 2009 Conference, Seattle WA
- Poster-Regional Risk Assessment as an Organizational and Decision Making Tool for Managing Puget Sound. Wayne G. Landis and April J. Markiewicz
- Poster- Ecological Risk Assessment Uncertainty Reduction by Mapping the Nearshore Habitats of Cherry Point, Washington.
15th Annual Whriling Disease Symposium, Denver 2009.
- Platform-An Ecological Risk Assessment Tool for Calculating the Risk of Infection by Whirling Disease on Imperiled Populations of Cutthroat Trout. Wayne G. Landis, Kim Kolb Ayre, Peter T. Bryant, Laurel A. Kaminski, Jonah Stinson and Colleen A. Caldwell.
Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Boston 2008 downloads
- Platform-Beyond contaminated sites, ecological risk assessment as the default environmental evaluation and management tool. Wayne G. Landis
- Poster- An ecological risk assessmet of the impact of whirling disease on populations of Rio Grande cutthroat troud in the southwestern United States. Wayne G. Landis, Laurel A. Kaminski, Peter T. Bryant and Colleen A. Caldwell.
- Handout for the Poster.
SETAC NA Tampa FL 2008 Platform downloads
- The Big Picture ....and NRDAR. Wayne G. Landis
- No Eco in Ecotoxicology without Context: Alterations in Population Age Structure, Dynammics and Spatial Interactions. Wayne G. Landis, Peter T. Bryant and Laurel A. Kaminski.
- Using the Relative Risk Model for Managing Water Quality with Multiple Types of Stressors and Sources using Lake Whatcom, Washington as a Case Study. Christina M. Maginnis and Wayne G. Landis
- Can ASTM Standard Methods be Applied to Managing Cherry Point, WA and the Marine Reserve? Wayne G. Landis
SETAC 2007 Poster and Platform downloads
- MP163 Regional assessments of adjacent urbanized watersheds surrounding Bellingham, Washington USA. Wayne G.Landis, Jessica A. Ellis, Laurel A. Kaminski and Christina M. Maginnis.
- Analysis of the Decline of Puget Sound Pacific Herring Stocks: Toxics, Urbanization, Climate Change or Disease? Wayne G. Landis, Peter F. Bryant and Paul K. Hershberger.
- Using WET test methods to detect phototoxic effects in PAHcontaminatedgroundwaterPAH-contaminated groundwater. J. C. Fortner, R. M. Harper and D. Sternberg.
SETAC 2006 Poster Download
- Interplay between contamination and the risk of invasive species
- Genetically modified organisms at population and landscape scales.
Eulogy for the Reference Site (poster available for download)
Presented at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2000 Annual Meeting, Nashville, TN November 12-16, 2000
Landis, W. G., Institute of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.
The use of reference sites has a long history in environmental science and specifically in environmental toxicology. The construct of a reference or control site is a legacy of the balance-of-nature model of ecological systems and laboratory experimental design. The balance of nature construct, i.e., that nature strives toward an ideal equilibrium state, has been falsified by field research and experimental model ecosystems. The classical laboratory experimental model cannot be transferred to ecological systems because ecological systems are not closed. In other words, a reference site is like warp travel, not part of reality. However, environmental managers cannot make decisions without a reference site and the idea of a reference site is written into many regulations. So what can we use as a better method of comparison? Three clear alternatives exist. The first involves documenting gradients within the ecosystem, i.e., low to high concentration of contamination, and performing investigations accordingly. This requires recognizing that site replication or independence is not possible and employing analysis methods to deal with these types of data. The second alternative involves creating a mathematical reference space based on existing ecological areas judged by a value-driven assessment to be the type of ecological system that is desirable. This approach can provide distributions and uncertainties for the variables of interest. The third alternative is to create a set of goals (again, value-driven) for the desired state of the ecosystem of interest. The reference space is delineated completely by stakeholder values rather than by referencing other ecosystems or sites.