Week 1: What is Landscape Ecology?
Beasley, J. C., and O. E. Rhodes. "Influence of patch- and landscape-level attributes on the movement behavior of raccoons in agriculturally fragmented landscapes." Canadian Journal of Zoology 88.2 (2010): 161-169. (link)
* This paper was interesting to read because of the uniform shape of the agricultural areas. This perhaps provides an easier starting place to look at landscape metrics. (Acker)
Boutin, S. and D. Hebert. 2002. Landscape ecology and forest management: developing an effective partnership. Ecological Applications 12:390-397. (link)
*Landscape ecology, conservation biology, forest management, forest projection models, partnerships, disturbance dynamics, fragmentation. (Wild)
El-Magd, Islam H.A. and ElSayed A. Hermas. 2010. Human Impact on the Coastal Landforms in the Area between Gamasa and Kitchner Drains, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt. Journal of Coastal Research26(3): 541-548.(link)
*A scientific report on changes in the coastal and aeolian landforms and human developed land uses found in the Nile Delta in northern Egypt and how these landforms have changed within two decades. (Shin)
Hong S. He, David J. Mladenoff. “Spatially Explicit and Stochastic Simulation of Forest-Landscape Fire Disturbance and Succession”. Ecology. Vol. 80, No. 1 (Jan., 1999), pp. 81-99. (link) Last accessed 1 October 2010.
**A description of the usefulness of LANDIS in modeling landscape changes due to fire disturbance, including species and succession changes, and its implications in predicting possible changes due to human impacts and climate change. (Witter)
Kearns FR, Kelly NM, Carter JL, Resh VH.. 2005. A method for the use of landscape metrics in freshwater research and management. Landscape Ecology 20: 113-125.Link (Gimper)
Kent, M. 2009. Biogeography and landscape ecology: the way forward - gradients and graph theory. Progress in Physical Geography 33: 424–436. (link).
*Follow-up to a 2007 review evaluating the relevance of landscape ecology to biogeography. Landscape ecology is a flourishing discipline that uses a diverse array of methodologies. New methods and metrics (such as gradient/continuum models and graph theoretical approaches) have the potential to greatly enhance the value of this research. Understanding the link between landscape structure and ecological processes remains a fundamental objective of landscape ecology; this should not be overlooked in the pursuit of new methods and metrics. (Forester)
Levin, S. A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73(6): 1943-1967. (link).
* A thorough lecture on the complications that the definition of scale presents to biology in explaining and predicting pattern. Proposes there is no correct scale to study a system, and stresses one might instead understand how it can be described from various scales. (Mayhew)
Li, X. and U. Mander. 2009. Future options in landscape ecology: development and research. Progress in Physical Geography 33(1):31-48. (link)
*Reiterates the importance of spatial patterning when evaluating ecological effects in heterogeneous ecosystems. Discusses the developing applications of landscape ecology, including combining the science with marine research, global climate change predictions, human development and natural disaster planning. Good paper, clear and thorough. FRAGSTATS, grain, extent, landscape genetics, landscape perception and ‘sound-scapes’, ‘smell-scapes’. (Anderson)
Petit, Sandrine. 2009. The dimensions of land use change in rural landscapes: Lessons learnt from the GB Countryside Surveys. Journal of Environmental Management 90(2009):2851-2856 doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.05.023 (link)
*This paper described how spatial patterns were affected by land use practices, how temporal dynamics affected the landscape, and how large ecological changes contributed to form a landscape. The benefit of this paper is the description of the effect that agriculture has on a landscape, but Petit’s articulation of other landscape ecology concepts is inferior and in less detail to that of Dean Urban and Monica Turner. (Clancy)
Rescia A.J., et al. 1997. A Fragmented Landscape in Northern Spain Analyzed at Different Spatial Scales: Implications for Management. Journal of Vegetation Science 8: 343-352. (link).
*This article deals with a study done in the Urdaibai Reserve in Nothern Spain, looking at areas of different vegetation, including places affected by agriculture. The study focused on variation of spatial patterns at different scales, and how scale affects the way the landscape is represented. Various scales need to be studied especially when management, conservation, and planning are of concern. (Gehri)
Wiens, John A. "Landscape
ecology as a foundation for sustainable conservation". Landscape Ecology (2009) 24:1053-1065. Link
*The induction of Landscape Ecology metrics into conservation ecology/biology and the reasons behind why it should occur. Included is an example of how the new ways of thinking help with understanding a Cynomys ludvicianus (Prairie dog) management situation. (Larson)
Week 2: Landscape Metrics
Epting J, Verbyla D. Landscape-level interactions of prefire vegetation, burn severity, and postfire vegetation over a 16-year period in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. June 2005;35(6):1367-1377. (link)
* examining burn severity and vegetation recovery using DEM, IR aerial photography, remote sensing, and satellite imagery. (Acker)
Hawkins, B. A., Field, R., Cornell, H. V., Currie, D. J., Guégan, J. F., Kaufman, D. M., Kerr, J. T., Mittlebach, G. G., Oberdorff, T., O'Brien, E. M., Porter, E. E., and Turner, J. R. G. 2003. Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology 84(12): 3105-3117. (link)
* Using data from a plethora of other studies, the authors show how water or water-energy as variables can explain plant, vertebrate and invertebrate richness at varying latitudes (opposed to the energy hypothesis). Predicts that energy constraints at higher latitudes, water constrains where energy inputs are high (equator). (Mayhew)
Jackson, V.L., L. L. Laack, and E. G. Zimmerman. 2005. Landscape metrics associated with habitat use by ocelots in south Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:733-738. (link)
*no keywords?? (Wild)
Lookingbill, Todd R., and Dean L. Urban. "Gradient analysis, the next generation: towards more plant-relevant explanatory variables." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35.7 (2005): 1744-1753. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Oct. 2010. (link)
*This paper expands on the Urban 2000 paper, describes an experiment conducted using gradient analysis on a forest in Oregon, and discusses the use of gradient analysis to model the effects of climate change on plant communities. The emphasis is that plant communities can be modeled more accurately with metrics that have a more direct effect on plant growth and community composition, rather than with those which have an indirect effect. (Witter)
*Two models of vegetation community in a northwest forest are created using “physical proxy variables” and “plant-relevant variables”. There was little difference in classification error rates between the unvalidated models. However, the plant-relevant model was far more successful at classifying heterogeneous validation plots (73%) compared to the proxy model (18%). This indicates that plant-relevant variables are better predictors of community type in heterogeneous areas of the study site. (Forester) Nice paper.
Long, J., Nelson, T., and Wulder, M.. 2009. Regionalization of Landscape Pattern Indices Using Multivariate Cluster Analysis. Environmental Management 46: 134-142.(link).
* This goal of this paper is to show that identifying forest patterns is a useful tool in helping to understand ecosystem processes. The methods used to gather and analyze the data are confusing to understand and must be read multiple times to grasp all the information. However, the resulting information proves this is an effective way to analyze forest patterns. (Clancy)
Manel, Stephanie, Michael K. Schwartz, Gordon Luikart, Pierre Taberlet. "Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18-4. April 2003, 189-197. Link
*Discussion on the need for correlation of Landcape Ecology metrics with population genetics studies. Also talks about the need to implement this new style of analyzing spatial data into conservation, ecology, and several other branches of the science.* (Larson)
Massada, A.V., V.C. Radeloff. 2010. Two multi-scale contextual approaches for mapping spatial pattern. Landscape Ecology 25:711-725. (link)
*Describes various techniques for quantifying landscape structure and pattern including the use of pixels v/s patch and pixel defined patches. Suggests incorporation of multi scale landscape window when defining metrics used to analyze species abundance and diversity and predict richness during multi species studies. Complicated methods. (Anderson)
Ozolincius, R., Stakenas, V., Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, I. & Buozyte, R.. 2009. Artificial drought in Scots pine stands: effects on soil, ground vegetation and tree condition. Annales Botanici Fennici 46: 299–307. (link).
*A drought simulation experiment on Scots pine stand in Lithuania from 2003-2005 to test how landscape characteristics like soil, ground vegetation, and tree conditions would change. Drought simulation data compared with a control data points to identify changes in landscape features. (Shin)
Poole, G. C. (March 2010). Stream hydrogeomorphology as a physical science basis for advances in stream ecology. Journal of the North American Benthological Society , 29:12-25. Link
*Major concepts in stream ecology have been fundamentally influenced by advances in fluvial geomorphology, channel hydrology, and hyporheic hydrogeology. As understanding of the physical basis of stream ecosystems have improved, conceptualization of stream ecosystems has evolved from primary linear structures to incorporate the topology of networks and the structure of landscapes. (Gimper) Nice paper
Poulos, Helen M., and Ann E. Camp. 2010. Topographic influences on vegetation mosaics and tree diversity in the Chihuahuan Desert Borderlands. Ecology 91:1140–1151. (link)
*Research paper that is an example of how landscape topography is a key factor in controlling vegetation patterns as well as diversity. The study was carried out over three mountain ranges and at different elevation levels at each range. (Jung)
Week 3: The Physical Template
Bunn, A.G., L.J. Graumlich, and D.L. Urban. 2005. Trends in twentieth-century tree growth at high elevations in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, USA. Holocene 15(4): 481-488. (link).
*Analysis of 5 different tree species from 13 different sites in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains using non-parametric ordination and cluster analysis, which showed significant temperature and precipitation correlations on data points plotted on axis representing species and location. (Shin)
*Well-done paper that showed the relationship between tree growth and global warming. This study analyzed old tree growth and climate records and compared them to twentieth-century records to determine the global warming trend. (Clancy)
Evers, David C. and Thomas A. Clair. 2004. Mercury in Northeastern North America: A synthesis of Existing Databases. EcoToxicology 14: 7-14. link
*Biogeographical patterns of environmental mercury in northeastern North America. Environmental abundance of Hg, and MeHg availability indicate heterogeneous levels across northeastern North America that are dictated by topography, hydrology, biogeochemistry, land-use patterns, and point source impacts (air and waterborne). Boring paper because the biotic template was only really discussed over about one page of the paper, the rest is government science jumbo. (Gimper)
HilleRisLambers, R., et al.2001.Vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid grazing systems. Ecology 82: 50–61. (link).
*This paper looks at several other studies to develop a model and determine which factors effect vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid landscapes. A large focus was on water inputs and outputs, although many other factors proved to be important also. (Gehri)
van der Maarel, Eddy. 1996. Pattern and process in the plant community: Fifty years after A.S. Watt. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:19-28. (link)
*This paper is a follow up on A.S. Watt's article, “Pattern and process in t he plant community.” It incorporates Watt's ideas with up to date knowledge of patch dynamics, small-scale dynamics in grasslands and forests as well as information on species mobility. (Jung)
Lane, C., Wright, S., Roncal, J., & Maschinski, J. (2008). Characterizing Environmental Gradients and Their Influence on Vegetation Zonation in a Subtropical Coastal Sand Dune System. Journal of Coastal Research, 24(4c), 213-224. (link)
*this paper looked at environmental gradients in dune systems to formulate better conservation and preservation plans (Acker)
Lang, G. E., et al. 1980. Structure and biomass dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities of balsam fir forests in New Hampshire. Ecology 61:541-550. Link
* lichen biomass, balsam fir, epiphytic lichen, lichen community structure, net production. (Wild)
Lawton, R.M., R.O. Lawton, 2010. Complex spatial structure in a population of Didymopanax pittieri, a tree of wind-exposed lower montane rain forest. Plant Ecology 210:125-135. (link)
*Evaluates the pattern of size and density of D. pittieri in the cloud and elfin forests of Costa Rican mountains against known natural disturbance patterns. Large scale trends are demonstrated to be the result of tree falls and wind stress. RELEV was an analytical tool used for determining the measure of topographic exposure.
Point patterns, inhomogeneous Poisson process, dwarfed forests, hemiepiphytes. (Anderson)
Perry G.L.W. 2002. Landscapes, space and equilibrium: shifting viewpoints. Progress in Physical Geography 26: 339-359. (link).
* This is an excellent review article that covers changing ideas about spatial patterns and equilibrium in landscape ecology over the past 30 years. The rise of spatial pattern and heterogeneity as important components of ecosystem dynamics over the past 20 years is discussed in detail. The shift from an equilibrium paradigm (the “balance of nature”) to an acknowledgement of disequilibrium and disturbance is also addressed with examples from various studies. The interaction of these concepts is discussed, as well as possible approaches for integrating spatial analysis and disequilibrium into empirical studies. (Forester)
Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L. “Landscape Ecology: Spatial heterogeneity in Ecological Systems” Science, Vol. 269 No. 5222 (Jul. 21, 1995), pp. 331-334. Link
*Describes how landscape ecology has helped integrate impacts of human development on the environment and ecological models as a whole. Indicates the need for more experiments conducted with thought of spatial heterogeneity in the field of ecology. Overall somewhat of a recap paper compared to what we have read and not too “ground breaking” from my point. (Larson)
Wu, J. & Levin, S. A. 1994. A spatial patch dynamic modeling approach to pattern and process in an annual grassland. Ecological Monographs 64(4): 447-464. (link)
* This team takes a similar approach to modeling landscape dynamics seen in Smith and Urban 1988, but avoid the use of a grid system in designating patches. Their model is based on the gopher mounds (disturbance patches) in the serpentine grasslands of Northern California, and attempts to predict how they impact vegetation dynamics. (Mayhew)
Zhao, Na; Yonghui, Yang and Zhou, Xinyao. “Application of geographically weighted regression in estimating the effect of climate and site conditions on vegetation distribution in Haihe Catchment, China.” Plant Ecology. 2010. Vol 209:2, p. 349-359. (link)
*Ordinary regression analysis, geographically weighted analysis, prediction of leaf area index, use of leaf area index to analyze water limitations in a watershed, elevation, aspect, total wetness index, temperature, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration. (Witter)
Week 4: Disturbance
Bell, S. S. et Al. 1999. Gap dynamics in a seagrass landscape. Ecosystems 2:493-504. Link
Keywords: gaps, sedimentation, landscape, seagrass, Halodule wrightii, patch dynamics (Wild)
Conedera, M., Tinner, W., Neff, C., Meurer, M., Dickens, A.F., and P Krebs. 2008. Reconstructing past fire regimes: methods, applications, and relevance to fire management and conservation. Quaternary Science Reviews 8: 555-576. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.11.005
* This paper evaluates several methods for reconstructing fire histories and discusses the application of fire histories to current land and fire management (Acker)
Lee, B. et al. 2007. Estimation of fire severity by use of Landsat TM images and its relevance to vegetation and topography in the 2000 Samcheok forest fire. The Japanese Forest Society and Springer 13:197-204 (link)
*This paper shows the effectiveness of Landsat TM images in assessing fire severity and analyzes the role of vegetation and topography in fire severity. (Clancy)
Lynch, H.J., R.A. Renkin, R.L. Crabtree, and P.R. Moorcroft. 2006. The influence of previous mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) activity on the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Ecosystems 9: 1318-1327. (link).
* Analyzes the influence that pine beetle outbreaks from the 1963-86 that may have had in determining the spatial burning pattern on the landscape in the Yellowstone National Park during the 1988 fire. (Shin)
Miller, Carol, and D.L. Urban . 1999. Interactions between forest heterogeneity and surface fire regimes in the southern Sierra Nevada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:202-212. (link)
*This study was to determine if repeated surface fires would magnify existing spatial patterns of different areas in Sequoia National Park, California. (Jung)
Peterson G.D. 2002. Contagious disturbance, ecological memory, and the emergence of landscape pattern. Ecosystems 5: 329-338. (link).
* This study uses a relatively simple model of forest fire to explore the influence of ecological memory on landscape pattern. Ecological memory occurs when “an ecological process is shaped by its past modifications of a landscape.” Peterson finds that fire creates spatial patterns that vary based on fire frequency and vegetation recovery time, while ecological memory controls the temporal persistence of these patterns. (Forester)
Smith H. Walter and Leslie J. Rissler. 2010. Quantifying Disturbance in Terrestrial Communities: Abundance–Biomass Comparisons of Herpetofauna Closely Track Forest Succession. Restoration Ecology. 18:195-204. Link
*Using the abundance-biomass comparisons or ABC to monitor restoration success in a longleaf pine ecosystem currently undergoing restoration via prescribed burning. Researchers say that species herpetofauna are a good indicator for disturbance in terrestrial communities. (Gimper)
Swetnam, T. W., Allen, C. D., & Betancourt, J. L. 1999. Applied historical ecology: using the past to manage for the future. Ecologcal Applications 9(4): 1189-1206. . (link) . (Mayhew)
* A review on the applications of historical ecology and its limitations. The authors provide various examples from their work in the Southwestern U.S. to illustrate its usefulness in management of ecosystems, but also to point out key caveats that must be considered in interpreting historical data.
Turner, M.G. W.H. Romme and D.B. Tinker. 2003. Surprises and lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(7):351-358. (link) (Wallin)
Wang, X., S.G. Cummings, 2010. Configuration dynamics of boreal forest landscapes under recent fire and harvesting regimes in western Canada. Landscape Ecology 25:1419-1432. Link
*Compares the impact of fire, harvesting and the combination on magnitude and direction of change on the habitat composition and structure of the landscape. Study area was managed boreal forests of Alberta Canada with data from 1993 and 2001. Landscape configuration defined as arrangement of habitat v/s non-habitat. Habitat fragmentation defined as process (anthro or natural) of configuration change. (Anderson)
Wu, Jianguo, Orie L. Loucks. From Balance of Nature to Hierarchical Patch Dynamics: A Paradigm Shift in Ecology. The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 70, No. 4 (Dec., 1995), pp. 439-466. Link
*Good article discussing the recent rise in landscape hetero/homogeneity thought. Did a great job comparing previous processes with emerging landscape ecology continuous and patch style ideas. I thought it was worth the read. (Lawson)
Zimmerman, JK; Comita, LS; Thompson, J; Uriarte, M; Brokaw, N. 2010. “Patch dynamics and community metastability of a subtropical forest: compound effects of natural disturbance and human land use.” Landscape Ecology. 25:1099-1111. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e7285u7823305627/fulltext.pdf
**Patch dynamics of a semi-tropical forest landscape in Puerto Rico with various types of land use history (varying from very little human-caused disturbance to heavy anthropogenic land use) in response to periodic hurricane disturbances. Intermediate disturbance succession in gaps, landscape-scale changes in understory vegetation, species abundance, patch community dissimilarity, land use history, landscape metastability, dominant patch size. (Witter)
Gauthier, S. et Al. 1996. Effects of fire regime on the serotiny level of jack pine. Journal of Ecology 84:539-548. Link (Wild)
Keywords: disturbance regime, serotiny, jack pine, Pinus banksiana, fire interval, fire intensity.
Mast, J.N., Chambers, C.L.. 2006. Integrated Approaches, Multiple Scales: Snag Dynamics in Burned Versus Unburned Landscapes. Professional Geographer. 58: 397-405 No link? (Clancy)
*This paper shows how the use of GIS and geographic information science (GIScience) makes the study of landscape processes easier and more accurate. This is done through analyzing spatial patterns in burned and unburned forests and recording the activity of birds in each type of forest. Then they use GIS and GIScience to predict future bird activity by analyzing snag features.
Millar, C. I. & Woolfenden, W. B. 1999. The role of climate change in interpreting historical variability. Ecological Applications. 9(4): 1207-1216. (link) (Mayhew)
* A review on the applications of historical variability in landscape management. The authors stress the importance of being diligent when comparing conditions during 'presettlement' times to current times. Because climactic variability influences biotic and abiotic responses and its magnitude can change over time, interpretations of variability in historical environments are incomplete without consideration of their climactic contexts.
Mitchell, R.J., and S.L. Duncan. 2009. Range of variability in southern coastal plain forests: its historical, contemporary, and future role in sustaining biodiversity. Ecology and Society 14(1):17-32. (Link) (Jung)
* This paper is on how HRV can be used to help integrate the relationship between social understanding, biodiversity management, and ecological understanding of the southern coastal plain forests. It defines concepts of variation, reviews other literature, and then ends with an assessment of the understanding of land management from different focus groups.
Torbick, N.M., B.L. Becker, S.L. Hession, et al., 2010. Assessing invasive plant infestation and disturbance gradients in a freshwater wetland using a GIScience approach. Wetlands Ecology and Management 18:307-319. Link (Anderson)
Hans-Erik Anderson, Robert J. McGaughey, Stephen E. Reutebuch. Estimating forest canopy fuel parameters using LIDAR data. Remote Sensing of Environment October 2004, vol.94, iss. 4, 441-449. Link (Larson)
*Paper discussing the use of LIDAR based technologies in determining canopy fuel availability for management. Done by local University of Washington professors, attempts to determine total available canopy fuel for Capitol State Forest, WA. Applicable models for the rest of Western Washington and Oregon are also discussed.*
W., Saatchi, S., Smith, T., Zutta, B., Chaves, J., Milá, B., et al. (2008). Predicting species distributions across the Amazonian and Andean
regions using remote sensing data. Journal
of Biogeography, 35(7),
* This was an interesting paper that focused on the application of remote sensing to studying geographic distributions of populations.
Elvidge, C. D., Cinzano, P., Pettit, D. R., Arvesen, J., Sutton, P., Small, C., Nemani, R., Longcore, T., Rich, C., Safran, J., Weeks, J., Ebener, S.. 2007.The Nightsat mission concept. International journal of Remote Sensing 28: 2645-2670. Link (Gimper)
*Mission concept requirements for a new Nightsat satellite that could meet spatial requirements of between 50 to 100 meters while holding the same orbital pattern as the Landsat system. Excellent paper covering the issues for remote sensing satellites when they travel to the dark side of the planet.
Menon, S., Bawa, K. 1997. Applications of Geographic Information Systems, Remote-Sensing, and a Landscape Ecology Approach to Biodiversity Conservation in the Western Ghats. Current Science 73.2: 134-145. link (Gehri)
*Interesting and easy-to-read article about using various landscape ecology tools to study land use change in the Western Ghats in India.
Goetz, Scott J., D. Steinberg, M.G. Betts, R.T. Holmes, P.J. Doran, R. Dubayah, and M. Hofton. 2010. Lidar remote sensing variables predict breeding habitat of a Neotropical migrant bird. Ecology 91(6): 1569-1576. (link). (shin)
*Study of habitat quality of Black-throated Blue Warbler in the White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire using a combination of lidar and optical remote sensing.
Hilker, T., M. van Leeuwen, N.C. Coops, M.A. Wulder, G.J. Newnham, D.L.B. Jupp, and D.S. Culvenor. 2009. Comparing canopy metrics derived from terrestrial and airborne laser scanning in a Douglas-fir dominated forest stand. Trees-Structure and Function 24(5): 819-832. (Link) (Jung)
* This study compares 2 types of LiDAR applications, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and airborne laser scanning (ALS).
Hilker, T. et al. 2010. Remote sensing of photosynthetic light-use efficiency across two forested biomes: Spatial scaling. Elsevier. 114: 2863-2874 (link) (Clancy)
*This study shows how Gross Primary Production can be measured without knowing respiration. They use remote sensing to determine the photosynthetic light-use efficiency of two stands: Douglas-fir and Aspen. This study used complicated algorithms in their calculations which were hard to decipher.
Martinuzzia, Sebastián, Lee A. Vierling, William A. Gould, Michael J. Falkowski, Jeffrey S. Evans, Andrew T. Hudak and Kerri T. Vierling. 2009. “Mapping snags and understory shrubs for a LiDAR-based assessment of wildlife habitat suitability”. Remote Sensing of Environment 113: 2533-2546 (Link) (Witter)
*Use of LiDAR data in estimating understory composition and vertical heterogeneity in regards to snags in forests. Modeling the suitability of wildlife habitat based on more accurate analysis of understory composition and snags.
Seavy NE, Viers JH and Wood JK. 2009. Riparian bird response to vegetation structure: a multiscale analysis using LiDAR measurements of canopy height. Ecological Applications 19:1848-1857. (link). (Forester)
*This study investigated the usefulness of LiDAR data for evaluating habitat associations between riparian vegetation structure and bird species. The authors used stepwise logistic regression to model habitat associations between birds and vegetation at multiple spatial scales. They found that birds respond to vegetation structure at multiple spatial scales and that this response is species-specific. They conclude that the conventional recommendation of examining vegetation structure at a scale of 0.8 hectares is insufficient for most bird species. They also recommend the use of LiDAR data to inform future studies of bird-vegetation associations.