Reading List for ESCI 435/535: Landscape Ecology

Fall Term, 2014

Last Updated: 9/15/2014 

Note: I WILL NOT be placing articles on reserve in the Main library. I will place a few books on reserve in the Main Library. All articles will be available electronically (see links below). 

I try to keep the links to papers updated but when the library drops a database subscription (as they frequently do), my links stop working.  So, PLEASE NOTIFY ME ASAP IF YOU FIND A BROKEN LINK.  If you do find a broken link, don’t give up.  You can navigate to these papers, or other papers you may locate yourself by going to the library webpage and finding your way to the paper yourself by using the citation that I have provided (journal name, year, volume and page numbers).

A final word about online resources:  In recent years, more and more journals are becoming available online.  This is both a good thing and a bad thing.  The good news is that online resources are very easy to access and you don’t need to spend your dime at the Xerox machine.  The bad news is that most of us (including me!) are getting lazy and becoming overly reliant on these online resources.  Many of us are just too darned lazy to walk to the library and search out a paper copy of a journal.  We tend to feel that if it is not online, it must not be important.  NOT TRUE!  Some great papers are published in journals that we do not have available online.  This is especially true for older classic papers.  The net effect is that the use of online journals tends to make us very myopic in what we choose to read.  Online resources were supposed to make journals more widely available.  They were supposed to broaden our perspective but in many cases, these online resources have tended to narrow our perspective.  Less and less of the literature is becoming more and more widely available (particularly with our declining budgets).  The stuff that is not available online tends to be ignored.  The take-home message?  Online resources are fantastic.  By all means use them.  However, don’t rely on these things exclusively!  If you come across a paper in a journal that is not available online, don’t give up!  Go the library and chase the journal down or request it through interlibrary loan if we don’t have it.  Someday, maybe all journals will be available on the web but we are not quite there yet.  In the meantime, we need to use the paper journals and the Xerox machines.  Someday, you’ll be able to tell your kids about the olden days and how you used to lug stacks of heavy paper journals to this contraption called a Xerox machine.  They’ll be impressed…..or maybe just amused….


Last Updated: 9/15/2014


Reading #1 (Sept. 26-29)

Urban, D.L., et al.. 1987. Landscape ecology. Bioscience 37:119-127. (Yes, this is an older paper, but please read it anyway!  It is a classic.) (Click here to view this article through JSTOR)

*Classic review paper from early days of landscape ecology, hierarchy theory, scaling, pattern and process linkage, disturbance, anthropogenic effects on landscape processes.


Turner, M.G.  2005a.  Landscape ecology in North America: past, present and future.  Ecology 86(8):1967-1974.(Click here for pdf file)


Turner, M.G.  2005b. Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science?  Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.  36:319-344.



Reading #2 (Sept. 30 Oct. 3)

Miller, J.R., M.G. Turner, E.A.H. Smithwick, C.L. Dent and E.H. Stanley.  2004.  Spatial extrapolation: the science of predicting ecological patterns and processes.  Bioscience 54:310-320.  (Click here to view through EBSCOhost; Go for the PDF Full-text version)

Gustafson, E.J.  1998.  Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: what is the state of the art?  Ecosystems 1:143-156.  (Click to view)

*spatial pattern; index; indices; spatial, heterogeneity; patchiness; landscape ecology; scale; geostatistics; autocovariation; spatial models.



McGarigal, Kevin, Sermin Tagil and Samuel A. Cushman. 2009. Surface metrics: an alternative to patch metrics for the quantification of landscape structure. Landscape Ecology 24(3):443-450. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-009-9327-y (NOTE: go to this link, then get the pdf.  In the pdf, you will also see a link to “Electronic supplementary material.”  You should take a look at this as well.)

*Landscape gradient model, Surface patterns, Landscape heterogeneity, Landscape metrics, Landscape pattern


Other optional papers:


Hoechstetter S., U. Walz, L.H. Dang, N.X. Thinh.  2008.  Effects of topography and surface roughness in analysis of landscape structure-a proposal to modify the existing set of landscape metrics.  Landscape Online 1:1-14.


Neel MC, McGarigal K, Cushman SA. 2004.  Behavior of class-level landscape metrics across gradients of class aggregation and area. Landscape Ecol 19:435–455. DOI: 10.1023/B:LAND.0000030521.19856.cb




Reading #3 (Oct. 6-8)

Stephenson, N.L. 1990. Climatic controls on vegetation distribution: the role of the water balance. Amer. Nat. 135:649-670.  Click to view through JSTORS


Urban, D.L. , C. Miller, P.N. Halpin and N.L. Stephenson.  2000.  Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template. Landscape Ecology 15:603-620.  urban_etal_2000.pdf



Reading #4 (Oct. 10)

Take another look at the Urban et at. 2000 paper that I assigned for 10/8-10) and also read:


Reiners, W.A. and G.E. Lang. 1979. Vegetation patterns and processes in the balsam fir zone, White Mountains, New Hampshire. Ecology 60:403-417. (Click here to view the article through JStors)





Reading #5 (Oct. 13-14)

Watt, A.S.. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35:1-22. (available in Huxley library or on the stacks in the main library) Click for access through JSTORS


Smith, T.M. and D.L. Urban.  1988.  Scale and resolution of forest structural patterns.  Vegetatio 74:143-150.  pdf_files\smith_and_urban_1988.doc


Reading #6 (Oct. 15) (updated (10/13)

Urban, D.L., M.F. Acevedo and S.L. Garman.  1999.  Scaling fine-scale processes to large-scale patterns using models derived from models: meta-models.  Pages 70-98 In: D. Mladenoff and W. Baker (eds.), Spatial modeling of forest landscape change: approaches and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  pdf_files\urban_etal_1999.doc


Reading #7 (Oct. 20-22)

Knight, D.H. and L.L. Wallace. 1989. The Yellowstone Fires: Issues in landscape ecology. BioScience 39: 700 706. Click here to access through JSTORS

(new)Romme, W.H., Boyce, M.S., Gresswell, R., Merrill, E.H., Minshall, G.W., Whitlock, C., and M.G. Turner. 2011. Twenty years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires: lessons about disturbance and ecosystems. Ecosystems 14(7):1196-1215.

Miller, C. and D.L. Urban.  1999.  A model of surface fire, climate and forest pattern in the Sierra Nevada, California.  Ecological Modelling 114:113-135. millerurban_99a.pdf

Possibly use this one in 2012; looks like a more up to date review of disturbance issues.

Turner, Monica G.  2010. Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world. Ecology. 9(10):2833-2849 (link).

*Turner sums up current disturbance understanding, highlighting core contributions to landscape and ecosystem ecology and goes on to discuss what future research needs to focus on.  In light of global climate change, ecologist must understand disturbance as a catalyst, how disturbances interact with each other and society, as well as recognizing feedbacks on a global level.  (Wilson)



Reading #8 (Oct. 24, 27)

Swanson, F.J., T.K. Kratz, N. Caine and R.G. Woodmansee. 1988. Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes. Bioscience 38:92-98.  (Click here to view and print this document through JSTORS) 

Landres, P.B., P. Morgan and F.J. Swanson. 1999. Overview of the use of natural variability concepts in managing ecological systems. Ecological Applications 9:1179-1188.  (Click to access the article through Jstors)  Note that this issue of Ecological Applications  includes a series of papers on this topic.


Reading #8 (Oct. 28-29)

Keane,  R.E., R.F. Hessburg, P.B. Landres, F.J. Swanson.  2009. The use of historical range and variability (HRV) in landscape management.  Forest Ecology and Management 258:1025-1037  pdf_files\keane_etal_2009_rnv.pdf

Waples, R.S., T. Beechie, G.R. Pess.  2009. Evolutionary history, habitat disturbance regimes and anthropogenic changes: what do these mean for resilience of Pacific salmon populations?  Ecology and Society 14(1):3  (note that this is one of several papers on this topic in this issue)

Not required reading but here are some additional papers on the HRV concept: 

Duncan, S. and K.N. Johnson (eds). 2009. Historical and future ranges of variability.  Ecology and Society 14(1) a special feature (with 4 papers)

Parsons, D.J., T.W. Swetnam and N.L. Christensen.  1999.  Uses and limitations of historical variability concepts in managing ecosystems. Ecological Applications 9:1177-1178.(Click to access the article through JSTORS)

Reeves, G.H., L.E. Benda, K.M. Burnett, P.A. Bisson and J.R. Sedell. 1995. A disturbance-based ecosystem approach to maintaining and restoring freshwater habitats of evolutionarily significant units of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17:334-349.


Oct. 31: No readings. Review for Mid-term Exam

October 31-November 3: Mid-term Exam


Reading #10 (Nov. 3-4)

Cohen, W.B., J.D. Kushla, W.J. Ripple and S.L. Garman.  1996.  An introduction to digital methods in remote sensing of forested ecosystems: focus on the Pacific Northwest.  Environmental Management 20(3):421-435. (Click here for .pdf file)  (Click here for color figures from this paper)

Lefsky, M.A., W.B. Cohen, G.G. Parker and D.J. Harding.  2002.  Lidar remote sensing for ecosystem studies.  Bioscience 52(1):19-30.  (Click here for pdf file)


Reading #11 (Nov. 10-11)

Gustafson, E.J. and R.H. Gardner. 1996. The effect of landscape heterogeneity on the probability of patch colonization. Ecology 77:94-107. (Click here to view and print this document through JStors)

Belisle, M.  2005.  Measuring landscape connectiviety: the challenge of behavioral landscape ecology.  Ecology 86(8):1988-1995.  (Click for pdf file)


Reading #12 (Nov. 12-14) 

Tischendorf, L. 2001. Can landscape indices predict ecological processes consistently? Landscape Ecol. 16:235-254. (Click here to view and print article)

Langlois, J.P. L. Fahrig, G. Merriam and H. Artsob.  2001.  Landscape structure influences continental distribution of hantavirus in deer mice.  Landscape Ecology 16(3):255-266. (Click here to view and print article)


Reading #11 (Nov. 17-18) Landscape Genetics I

Manel, S., M.K. Schwartz, G. Luikars and P. Taberlet.  2003.  Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics.  TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 18(4):189-197  manel_etal_2003.pdf

Holderegger, R., U. Kamm and F. Gugerli.  2006.  Adaptive vs. neutral genetic diversity: implications for landscape genetics.  Landscape Ecology 21:797-807.  (Click here to view and print article)


Reading #12 (Nov. 19-24) Landscape Genetics II

Cushman S.A., K.S. McKelvey, J. Hayden and M.K. Schwartz.  2006.  Gene flow in complex landscapes: testing multiple hypotheses with causal modeling.  The American Naturalist 168(4):xxx-xxx.  Cushman_etal_2006.pdf


November 26-28: No Class (Thanksgiving Break)



Reading #14 (Dec 1-2) Metapopulations and Communities

Pulliam, H.R. 1988. Sources, sinks and population regulation. Amer. Nat. 132:652-661. (Click to view through JSTORS)  

Schumaker, N.H. T. Ernst, D White, J. Baker and P. Haggerty.  2004.  Projecting wildlife responses to alternative future landscapes in Oregon’s Willamette basin.  Ecological Applications 14(2):381-400.  . (schumaker_etal_2004.pdf)

Just for fun, you might also read:

Pulliam, H.R. 1998.  The political education of a biologist: Part I. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:199-202.  Click here to view through JSTORS  This paper is both depressing and amusing.

Pulliam, H.R. 1998.  The political education of a biologist: Part II. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:499-503  Click here to view through JSTORS



Reading #13 (Dec 3-5)  Ecosystem Processes: Hydrology

Jones, J.A., F.J. Swanson, B.C. Wemple and J.U. Snyder. 2000. Effects of roads on hydrology, geomorphology, disturbance patches in stream networks. Conservation Biology 14:76-85. . Click here to view article  (Note that this issue of Conservation Biology includes a whole series of papers about road impacts on ecosystems)


Moscrip, AL and D.R. Montgomery.  1997.  Urbanization, flood frequency and salmon abundance in Puget Lowland Streams.  J. of the Amer. Water Resources Assoc.  33:1289-1297.  Click here to view article



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