Question 2 Answer
Even though the person inquiring may be the student's parent, FERPA recognizes students in post-secondary education as adults regardless of age. Therefore, you cannot give out grades or any other non-directory information.
You must assume that the student is an adult who is entitled to privacy, even from parents. Although the university may allow parents of a dependent student to view the student's education records, this determination must be made by the Registrar's Office.