Active Learning Toolkit

"Use of [active learning] techniques in the classroom is vital because of their powerful impact upon students' learning." -- Bonwell & Eison

What & Why - What is Active Learning and Why is it Important?

What is Active Learning?

Active learning is an instructional approach that "involves students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing," (Bonwell & Eison, 1991, p.2). Active learning engages students in activities beyond reading, listening, or watching to deepen their learning and connection with the material.

Students engaged in active learning often are:

  • talking with each other in small groups or large discussions
  • developing skills rather than memorizing information
  • using higher order thinking
  • doing something physical
  • constructing knowledge or artifacts
Why is it Important?

Active learning improves student success.

  • Students learn the material and perform better on exams and are 1.5 times less likely to fail than students in classes with traditional lectures (Freeman, et.al, 2014)
  • The achievement gap for underrepresent student populations, including minorites and first-generation students, is decreased (Eddy and Hogan, 2014 and Haak et.al. 2001)
  • Collaboration with classmates builds community and a sense of belonging among students, which can enhance motivation and persistence. (King, 2012)
  • Students feel more personally invested in the material and their own learning when they are actively engaged. (Svinicki, 2016)
  • Inclusiveness is enhanced through active learning by engaging a variety of learning modes or styles

Active learning acts as formative assessment and can:

  • provide valuable feedback to instructors about what students do and do not understand.
  • help students become more self-aware of their own learning progress.

With roots in constructivist learning theory, the primary benefit of active learning is that it makes students an active, rather than passive, participant in the the process of assimilating new information (Bransford, et.al., 1999) and leverages the power of social interaction, especially when students work with their peers to solve problems or create artifacts (Vygotsky, 1978).

Resources

Academic Research Articles

Articles for Educators

Relevant Books

How To - Getting Started Using Active Learning Strategies

Start Small

Choose a tool that seems comfortable for a single class session, or even just part of a class session, rather than trying to redeisgn an entire course. For example, you might first look for a tool that will help you make your lectures more interactive instead of trying to replace lectures with activities. Then work your way up to more immersive experiences for your students.

Also, feel free to alter ideas to suit your needs; think of instructions as guidelines or suggestions rather than rules. Adjusting tools to fit your own personality, as well as the content, class structure, and student demographics, will increase their potential for success.

Plan Ahead

Consider logistics like time, space, and materials. Determine how you will frame the activity, what explanations and directions you will offer, and what content students need prior to the activity in order to be successful. Think about using Flipped Teaching, where students access lecture materials through videos or online content prior to class, to free up time for active learning.

Provide a Framework

Explain to students what you are doing and why you are doing it. This not only helps build rapport and classroom climate, it enhances students’ metacognition and increases chances for success with the activity.

Debrief

After the activity, let students discuss the experience with each other and with you. You’ll get feedback about both the process and the learning outcomes of the activity that can inform your next steps in the course content and instructional approaches.

Avoiding Pitfalls
Active Learning Ideas
  • Activity Information, List of several active learning ideas with at-a-glance descriptions, examples, and supporting research. Includes case study, concept maps, discussions, games, jigsaw, think-pair-share, role play, and more. ABL Connect, Harvard University.
  • Classroom Activities for Active Learning, Center for Faculty Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
  • Instructional Strategies - Faculty Center for Teaching & Learning, University of Central Florida. List of examples of different teaching methods for use in classroom, including active-learning, case-based learning, collaborative learning, and interactive teaching. Includes a large section about halfway down the page covering various tips for active lectures.
  • Non-Traditional Teaching & Learning Strategies, Teaching and Learning Committee Resources, Montana State University.
 

Tools & Approaches for Interactive Lecturing

General Tips on Interactive Lecturing
Student Response Systems
ABCD Voting Cards
IF AT Cards
Mini White Boards
Backchanneling
Pause Procedure
Muddiest Point
Exit Slips

Tools & Approaches for Active Assignments

Concept Maps
Student Presentations
Peer Instruction
Low Stakes Assignments
Collaborative Testing

Tools & Approaches for Facilitating Discussion

Gallery Walk
Think-Pair-Share
Jigsaw
Debate
Speed Dating
More Ideas

Tools & Approaches for Immersive Experiences

Case Studies
How to Use Case Studies
Samples and Examples
Role-Plays, Simulations and Games
Role Plays and Simulations
Games
Project-Based Learning
Problem-Based Learning
Inquiry-Based Learning
Field Trips (Real or Virtual)
Service Learning (Civic Engagement)